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Layout And Working of Diesel Engine Power Plant

Layout And Working of Diesel Engine Power Plant


In this article general layout and working of diesel engine power plant is well described. Operation of diesel engine power plant is simple in understanding which is exaplin below.


Layout And Working of Diesel Engine Power Plant



Diesel engine power plants are installed where supply of coal and water is not available in
sufficient quantity or where power is to be generated in small quantity or where standby sets are required for continuity of supply such as in hospitals, telephone exchanges, radio stations and cinemas.


These plants in the range of 2 to 50 MW capacity are used as central stations for supply authorities and works and they are universally adapted to supplement hydro-electric or thermal stations where stand-by generating plants are essential for starting from cold and under emergency conditions.


In several countries, the demand for diesel power plants is increased for electric power
generation because of difficulties experienced in construction of new hydraulic plants and enlargement of old hydro-plants.


A long term planning is required for the development of thermo and hydro-plants which cannot keep the pace many times with the increased demand by the people and
industries.


The diesel units used for electric generation are more reliable and long-lived piece of equipment compared with other types of plants.

Components of a Diesel Power Plant


The essential components of a diesel power plant are shown title image.

Repulsion Induction Motor | Working, Advantages and Application

Repulsion Induction Motor | Working, Advantages and Application


Repulsion motor is one type of induction motor which is used more in industries. Working, Advantages and Application are provided below in detail.

Repulsion Induction Motor | Working, Advantages and Application

A single-phase repulsion-induction motor combines the constant-speed characteristics of the single-phase induction motor with the good starting characteristics of the repulsion
motor.


The stator of this machine has a simple single-phase winding like that of single-phase
induction motor.


The rotor, however, is built up of laminations, each of which has two concentric sets of slots.


These slots contain two distinct windings;in the outer slots is wound a commutator winding similar to that of D.C.armature,while in the inner slots is a cast aluminium squirrel-cage winding which clamps the laminations.


Figure illustrates an armature for a repulsion induction motor complete with a
squirrel-cage winding.


At starting and during the acceleration period, the magnetic flux produced by the stator
embraces only the commutator winding in the outer slots owing to the high reactance of the squirrel-cage.


The motor starts up virtually as a repulsion motor and develops a high starting torque.


As the motor speeds up the reactance of the squirrel-cage decreased, so that this winding assists the commutator winding to supply the running torque.


Advantages of Repulsion Motor


The repulsion-induction motor has the following advantages


✓High starting torque.

✓Fairly good speed regulation.

✓Major virtue is the ability to continue to develop torque under sudden, heavy applied load without breaking down.

Application of Repulsion Motor


Such motors are suitable for all single-phase power applications which require a high
starting torque and constant speed when running.

They also operate at a very high power factor.

They are particularly well adapted to drive.

machine tools, lifts hoists, mixing machines, centrifugal pump, fans and blowers.

Construction of three phase synchronous Motor

Construction of three phase synchronous Motor


Here, The Construction of three phase synchronous motor is described very effectively in this article, this theory is one of the most important and useful for practical knowledge. All the description is explained below.


Construction of three phase synchronous Motor



A three-phase synchronous motor consists of the following essential parts:

1.Laminated stator core with three-phase armature winding.

2.Revolving field complete with amortisseur winding and slip rings.

3.Brushes and brush holders.

4.Two end shields to house the bearings that support the shaft.

The stator core and windings of a synchronous motor are similar to those of a 3-phase
squirrel-cage induction motor or a wound-rotor induction motor.

The leads for the stator winding, marked T1,T2 and T3, terminate in a terminal box usually mounted on the side of the motor frame.

The rotor is generally a salient pole rotor.The number of rotor field poles must equal the
number of stator field poles.

In order to eliminate hunting and to develop the necessary starting torque when A.C.voltage is applied to the stator, the rotor poles contain pole-face conductors which are short-circuited at their ends as shown in below image



This amortisseur or damper winding consists of solid copper bars embedded at the surface
of the pole face and short-circuited at each end by means of a shorting strip as shown in below image.



The field circuit leads are brought out to two slip rings mounted on the rotor shaft.

Carbon brushes mounted in brush holders make contact with the two slip rings.

The terminals of the field circuit are brought out from the brush holders to a second teminal
box mounted on the motor frame.


What is Motor Converter? And How it works?

What is Motor Converter? And How it works?


Motor converter are required more in industries and in many manufacturing company, so basic knowledge of motor converters required, which is provided below.


What is Motor Converter? And How it works?

Motor Converter


A motor converter essentially consists of an ordinary slip-ring induction motor coupled both mechanically and electrically to a D.C. generator.


The rotor of the induction motor is usually wound for 12 phases to obtain better performance.


A.C.voltage up to 11 kV can be directly fed to the stator.


If A.C.voltage available is more than 11 kV then it is economical to step down the voltage before feeding it to the stator winding.


The rotor of the slip-ring induction motor is mechanically as well as electrically coupled to D.C.generator.


D.C.generator is also known as armature of the converter.


The motor input energy is partly transmitted mechanically(through the shaft)and partly electrically, i.e.,as slip ring energy from the rotor of the induction motor.


Advantages Of Motor Converter


✓It is self starting.

✓The set is simple to operate and is reliable.

✓It has sufficiently high power factor.

✓It permits wide regulation in D.C.voltage.

✓It can be operated on any frequency.

✓It can be operated at high voltages.


Disadvantages of Motor Converter


✓Because of its low speed,it is more expensive and hence it is not much popular.


✓It is possible to obtain D.C.voltage upto 1700-2000 V.

What is LVDT ? AND How LVDT works? | Electrical Measurement Theory

What is LVDT ? AND How LVDT works? |  Electrical Measurement Theory


The theory of LVDT  is provided in this article in detailed knowledge. Working principle of LVDT and How LVDT works are explained in detail in this article. This theory is more important for get knowledge about electical measurement.



LVDT stands for Linear Variable Differential Transformer.


LVDT is a passive inductive transducer and
commonly employed to measure force or weight.


Pressure and acceleration etc. which depend on force in terms of the amount and direction of displacement of an object.


Construction

Construction of LVDT is shown in below figure which is more helpful for understanding.

What is LVDT ? AND How LVDT works? |  Electrical Measurement Theory


It consists of one primary winding P and two secondary windings S1 and  S2
which are placed on either side of the
primary mounted on the same magnetic core.


The magnetic core is free to move axially
inside the coil assembly and the motion being measured is mechanically coupled to it.


The two secondaries S1 and S2 have equal number of turns but are connected in series
opposition so that e.m.fs.(Ei and E2) induced in them are 180 out of phase with each
other and, hence,cancel  eachother out.


The primary is energised from a suitable A.C.source.


Working


When the core is in the centre called reference position the induced voltages E1 and E2 are equal and opposite.Hence they cancel out and the output voltage Vo is zero.


When the external applied force moves the core towards coil S2, Ez is increased but Ei is
decreased in magnitude though they are still antiphase with each other.


The net voltage available is(E2-E1) and is in phase with D2.


Similarly,when the magnetic core moves towards coil S1,E1>Ez and Vo = E1- Ez and is in
phase with E1.


Thus, we find that the magnitude of Vo is a function of the distance improved by the core and its polarity or phase indicates as to in which direction it has moved.


If core is attached to a moving object,the magnitude of Vo gives the position of that object.

Transformer Noise and Techniques of Reduce Transformer Noise

Transformer Noise and Techniques of Reduce Transformer Noise


There are many losses are occurred in the transformer, so by this losses and friction, Noise will be produced and which spread the noise pollution in environment.

Transformer Noise and Techniques of Reduce Transformer Noise


So, How noise will be occurs and prevent of noise is provided below in detail.


Transformer Noise


The“humm” noise sound caused by energized power transformer, under no-load conditions, originates in the core where the laminations tend to uibrate by magrietic forces.


The noise is transmitted through the oil to the tank side and thence to the surroundings.


There are the main factors which produce noise in transformers:


‌Magnetostriction(occurrence of dimensional changes both parallel to,and perpendicular to the direction of magnetisation).


‌The mechanical vibrations caused by the laminations,depending upon the tightness
of clamping,size,gauge,associated structural parts,etc.


‌The mechanical vibration of tank walls.


‌The damping.


The noise produced by Transformer may be reduced by the following methods/means:


‌Prevention of vibration of core-plate by the use of a lower flux density and giving attention to constructional feature(such as clamping bolts,proportions and dimensions of the'steps'in plate width,tightness of clamping and uniformity of plates).


‌Using cushions,padding,or oil barriers to sound insulate the transformer from tank.


‌Designing suitably the tank and stiffeners to check tank wall vibration.


‌Sound insulating the tank from the ground or surrounding air.


Perfectly noise problem cannot be solved. completely.




Difference between Induction Motor and Sychronous Motor

Difference between Induction Motor and Sychronous Motor


There many differences between Induction Motor and Sychronous Motor which all are the differences are provided below which is more helpful to choose any one of them easily.


Difference between Induction Motor and Sychronous Motor


Difference Point 1


Induction Motor: Does not require D.C.excitation.

Sychronous Motor: Requires D.C.excitation.



Difference Point 2


Induction Motor: Speed can be controlled but to small extent.

Sychronous Motor: Speed control not possible.



Difference Point 3


Induction Motor: Its speed falls with the increase in load and is always less than synchronous speed.

Sychronous Motor: Its average speed is constant and independent of load.



Difference Point 4


Induction Motor: It operates at only lagging power factor, which becomes very poor at light loads.

Sychronous Motor: Its torque is less sensitive to change in supply voltage.



Difference Point 5


Induction Motor: Its torque is more sensitive to change in supply voltage.

Sychronous Motor: Its torque is less sensitive to change in supply voltage.



Difference Point 6


Induction Motor: Breakdown torque is proportional to the square of the supply voltage.

Sychronous Motor: Breakdown torque is proportional to the supply voltage.



Difference Point 7


Induction Motor: More simple and less costly comparatively.

Sychronous Motor: More complicated and more costly comparatively.



Difference Point 8


Induction Motor: Employed for supplying mechanical load only.

Sychronous Motor: Employed for supplying mechanical load as well as for power factor improvement.

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